On this day 28 November Vietnam

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1964 Johnson advised to bomb North Vietnam

President Lyndon Johnson's top advisers--Maxwell Taylor, Dean Rusk, Robert McNamara, and other members of the National Security Council--agree to recommend that the president adopt a plan for a two-stage escalation of the bombing of North Vietnam.

The purpose of this bombing was three-fold: to boost South Vietnamese morale, to cut down infiltration of Communist troops from the north, and to force Hanoi to stop its support of the insurgency in South Vietnam. While his advisors agreed that bombing was necessary, there was a difference of opinion about the best way to go about it. Johnson's senior military advisers pressed for a "fast and full squeeze," massive attacks against major industries and military targets in the north. His civilian advisers advocated a "slow squeeze," a graduated series of attacks beginning with the infiltration routes in Laos and slowly extending to the targets in North Vietnam. Ultimately, the civilian advisers convinced Johnson to use the graduated approach. The bombing campaign, code-named Rolling Thunder, began in March 1965 and lasted through October 1968.

1965 The Philippines agrees to send troops to South Vietnam

President Elect Ferdinand Marcos of the Philippines states that he will send troops to South Vietnam, in response to President Lyndon Johnson's call for "more flags" in Vietnam.

Johnson hoped to enlist other nations to send military aid and troops to support the American cause in South Vietnam. The level of support was not the primary issue; Johnson wanted to portray international solidarity and consensus for U.S. policies in Southeast Asia. The Philippines sent a 1,500-man civic action force in 1966; the United States paid for the group's operating costs and also provided additional military and economic aid to Marcos in return for sending his troops.

Several other countries--including Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, and Thailand--responded to Johnson's call and sent troops to South Vietnam. Collectively, these troops were known as the Free World Military Forces, and they fought alongside American and South Vietnamese troops.
 

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